Malls in Phase 4 state-wide–Equipped With MERV-13 AND MERV 11 Highly Effective Air Filtration Systems May Open Friday

WPCNR REPOPENING REPORTER. From Chairman of the Westchester County Board of Legislators Benjamin Boykin, July 9, 2020:


Beginning Friday, July 10, malls in regions that are in Phase Four of reopening can open as long as they have enhanced HVAC filtration systems and measures in place. These consist of:

  • MERV-13 or highest compatible with the system – but not less than MERV-11 rating. MERV-13 filters out the coronavirus.
     
  • Ventilation Protocols – Increased outdoor air, reduced air re-circulation, longer system run times, and frequent filter checks.

Read the complete Malls Summary Guidelines from NYS here: 
https://www.governor.ny.gov/sites/governor.ny.gov/files/atoms/files/Malls_Summary_Guidelines.pdf

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WESTCHESTER ABSENTEE BALLOT COUNTING BEGINS

WPCNR CAMPAIGN2020. By John F. Bailey. July 9, 2020:

WPCNR has learned that Board of Elections staff began counting some 65,000 absentee ballots today at 11 A.M. in the 17th Congressional District race for Nita Lowey’s seat and the 93rd Assembly District representing White Plains, Harrison, Bedford, the Castles, which is very close with 200 votes separating Chris Burdick and Kristen Browde, and Jason Frie-Pearson 400 votes behind Burdick with approximately 11,000 absentee ballots to count.

The counting is being done by Board of Elections staf, but all campaigns are allowed to bring observers/lawyers and by hand and by voting machine .

Candidates in the 93rd Assembly District race Chris Burdick, Kristen Browde and Jason Frie-Pearson will all have observers.

The procedures were determined in a court proceeding yesterday morning.

No indication exactly when the unprecedented number of absentee ballot counts is expected to be completed.

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Paycheck protection program opens up again as Westchester slides into Phase 4 Reopening

WPCNR REOPENING REPORTER. From County Legislator Catherine Parker. July 9, 2020:

Paycheck Protection Program has Reopened

The Paycheck Protection Program resumed accepting applications July 6, 2020. The new deadline to apply for a Paycheck Protection Program loan is August 8, 2020. The Paycheck Protection Program is a loan designed to provide a direct incentive for small businesses to keep their workers on the payroll. SBA will forgive loans if all employee retention criteria are met, and the funds are used for eligible expenses. Click here to read more about PPP loan forgiveness.

How To Apply
You can apply through any existing SBA 7(a) lender or through any federally insured depository institution, federally insured credit union, and Farm Credit System institution that is participating. Other regulated lenders will be available to make these loans once they are approved and enrolled in the program. You should consult with your local lender as to whether it is participating in the program. View a list of lenders participating in the Paycheck Protection Program by state.
Westchester County in Phase Four of Reopening which includes Higher Education, Low-Risk Outdoor/Indoor Arts & Entertainment and Media Production

New York State released detailed guidance for Phase Four of reopening.
Higher Education including community and junior colleges, universities, graduate and professional schools, medical schools, and technical schools.Low Risk Outdoor Entertainment, including outdoor zoos, botanical gardens, nature parks, grounds of historic sites and cultural institutions, outdoor museums, outdoor agritourism, local agricultural demonstrations and exhibitions.

Low Risk Indoor Arts and Entertainment including museums, historical sites, aquariums, and other related institutions or activities.Media Production including all activities undertaken in motion picture, music, television, and streaming productions on set, on location, or at any production or recording site.

Read the NYS detailed Phase Four guidance here.

Please note that gyms, malls and movie theaters are not currently included in Phase Four.Additionally, indoor religious gatherings will be allowed up to 33 percent capacity, up from 25 percent.

Social gatherings will also be allowed up to 50 people in one setting, up from 25 in Phase 3.Each company seeking to reopen must document a detailed plan for a safe reopening. Click here to find a template for a Business Reopening Safety Plan for businesses reopening on Phase Four.Each company seeking to reopen must read the detailed Guidance provided by NYS and submit an affirmation. Click here to find the affirmation for businesses opening in Phase Four.
Community Capital New York Emergency Express LoanIf your small business needs immediate working capital, CCNY is offering a $10,000 Emergency Express Loan to help you bridge the gap. You can apply online and a member of the lending team will be in touch with you regarding documentation and next steps. Terms$10,00024-month term2% interest rateDeferred payments Minimum QualificationsAll business owners must have a credit score of 650 or higher.
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SCHOOL DECISION ON OPENING DUE BY AUGUST 7

WPCNR CORNAVIRUS UPDATE. From the Governor’s Office. July 8, 2020:

Governor Andrew M. Cuomo today announced that New York State will decide whether schools will reopen in the fall during the first week of August. New York State is now consulting with stakeholders on guidance, which will be finalized on July 13. Plans to reopen schools are due on July 31.

The governor also announced that all county fairs will be canceled until further notice out of an abundance of caution. Governor Cuomo previously announced that the New York State Fair will be canceled this summer.

Governor Cuomo also announced beginning Friday, July 10, malls can open in regions that have entered Phase IV of reopening if they have implemented an enhanced Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning – or HVAC – filtration system and follow proper ventilation protocols. HVAC systems will be required to include filters with a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value – or MERV – rating of which filters out the COVID-19 virus, but can, if the system makes additional protections, run on a minimum MERV of 11. Ventilation protocols include increased outdoor air, reduced air circulation, longer system run times and frequent filter checks.

Governor Cuomo also announced that New York State will provide 1,000 masks and 1,000 2-ounce bottles of hand sanitizer for the Fire Island COVID Destroyers – a partnership that includes GMHC and Fire Island community leaders – to distribute on Fire Island.

The governor also updated New Yorkers on the state’s progress during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Long Island enters Phase IV of reopening today. The number of new cases, percentage of tests that were positive and many other helpful data points are always available at forward.ny.gov.

“We have been consulting all stakeholders on guidance for how a school would reopen in September. We have 700 school districts in this state, and they range from rural to urban to suburban areas. Localities are very involved in their schools and school decisions, so we have been meeting with them,” Governor Cuomo said. “During the first week of August, the state will announce a decision on whether or not those schools reopen, and we want to make that decision with the best available data because facts change here day to day and week to week. A week can be a lifetime with this virus because everything changes so quickly. The schools say they need a decision made by the end of the first week in August so they can then turn on the switches and get everything ready for September, and we’ll look at the data in that first week and then we’ll make a decision.”

Today’s data is summarized briefly below:

  • Patient Hospitalization – 841 (+5)
  • Patients Newly Admitted – 84 (+16)
  • Hospital Counties – 31
  • Number ICU – 166 (+6)
  • Number ICU with Intubation – 97 (-6)
  • Total Discharges – 71,185 (+94)
  • Deaths – 11
  • Total Deaths – 24,944

Of the 57,585 tests conducted in New York State yesterday, 692, or 1.2 percent, were positive. Each region’s percentage of positive tests over the last three days is as follows:

REGIONSUNDAYMONDAYTUESDAY
Capital Region1.00%1.20%0.90%
Central New York1.70%1.60%1.20%
Finger Lakes1.10%0.90%1.40%
Long Island0.90%1.00%1.30%
Mid-Hudson0.90%0.90%1.20%
Mohawk Valley1.10%1.10%1.10%
New York City0.90%1.10%1.20%
North Country0.40%0.20%0.20%
Southern Tier0.70%0.50%0.50%
Western New York1.20%1.40%1.70%

The Governor also confirmed 692 additional cases of novel coronavirus, bringing the statewide total to 398,929 confirmed cases in New York State. Of the 398,929 total individuals who tested positive for the virus, the geographic breakdown is as follows:

CountyTotal PositiveNew Positive
Albany2,17511
Allegany641
Broome7664
Cattaraugus1302
Cayuga1220
Chautauqua14914
Chemung1470
Chenango1592
Clinton1061
Columbia4823
Cortland541
Delaware910
Dutchess4,2502
Erie7,59652
Essex490
Franklin330
Fulton2620
Genesee2442
Greene2630
Hamilton60
Herkimer1810
Jefferson940
Lewis310
Livingston1373
Madison3681
Monroe4,04642
Montgomery1210
Nassau42,12234
Niagara1,30710
NYC217,777289
Oneida1,77616
Onondaga3,02932
Ontario2863
Orange10,8068
Orleans2861
Oswego2103
Otsego860
Putnam1,3444
Rensselaer5809
Rockland13,67911
Saratoga5824
Schenectady8441
Schoharie601
Schuyler130
Seneca710
St. Lawrence2271
Steuben2710
Suffolk41,79969
Sullivan1,4601
Tioga1500
Tompkins1801
Ulster1,8452
Warren2730
Washington2470
Wayne1932
Westchester35,15448
Wyoming981
Yates480
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COVID-19 SURCHARGES SURFACE AT LOCAL BUSINESSES. GOUGING BACK

WPCNR QUILL & EYESHADE. From County Board of Legislators Chairman Benjamin Boykin. July 8, 2020:

The Westchester County Consumer Protection Department has been notified that retail businesses in our County have been adding COVID-19 related fees to bills, so the Department believes it’s important to clarify the County law in this area for both businesses and consumers.

Pursuant to the Westchester Consumer Protection Code, businesses can add these fees, but consumers must be clearly notified about the fees at the point of sale while they are involved in making a decision during a consumer transaction, not at the last minute when they get the bill. It is a violation of the consumer protection code: “To sell or offer for sale any consumer goods or services at a greater price than the price displayed or advertised therefor.”

Consumers need to know that there are no “COVID-19” or “Pandemic” tax or fees that has been placed on goods and services, so these fees are being added by the stores and restaurants on their own.  Further, consumers should never be charged a price above posted prices (outside of sales tax). If there is two tier pricing (Cash vs. Credit), both prices must be clearly posted.

If consumers believe they were not provided adequate notice of these fees, they can file a complaint on the Consumer Protection Department’s webpage: https://consumer.westchestergov.com or call the Department at (914) 995-2155 with questions.

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FEINER ON THE RECORD: DETAILS PRIMARY VOTING FIASCO FOR COUNTY LEGISLATOR TASK FORCE

WPCNR THE LETTER TICKER. From Greenburgh Town Supervisor Paul Feiner July 7, 2020:

County Board of Legislators:

Thank you  for reviewing the primary day fiasco.  These are some of the concerns residents highlighted to me on primary day. I hope that the Board of Elections will give priority attention to correcting the many problems that took place. Our democracy depends on voter confidence of the integrity of our elections. 

The Greenburgh Town Board is meeting on Wednesday night so I will be unable to attend your meeting. I appreciate the fact that these comments will be included in the record.  Complaints I heard:

1) People did not receive absentee ballots; 

2)long lines -some people waited for more than two hours to vote (some  people voted after 11 PM);

3)Machines malfunctioned- one of registration machines that printed ballots kept shutting down because of inadequate power; 

4) lack of air conditioning at some polls; 5)malfunctioning machines; 

6)reduction in polling places. 81 election districts–5 polling locations. Confusion since people didn’t vote at the polling location they always vote at. Polling locations should not be reduced -voters should always vote at the same location; 

7)unsure if absentee ballots that were sent in the ballot would be counted since postal service is not reliable (I had suggested that the Board of Elections send voters a confirmation that they received the ballot or provide voters with an identification number enabling voters to confirm if the ballot was received).  It would be interesting if the county would analyze -after votes are counted – how many ballots were invalidated because they arrived too late. 

8) Elderly and disabled residents with canes had to wait for up to two hours to vote and not afforded any accomodations 

9) people who were dehydrated and with temperature waited on lines  –some left before voting;

 10) lack of adequate help at polling places to control crowds. 
PAUL FEINER

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WESTCHESTER ENTERS PHASE 4 OPENIG TOMORROW

WPCNR COUNTY CLARION-LEDGER From Chairman of the Westchester County Board of Legislators Ben Boykin. July 6, 2020:

On Tuesday, July 7, Westchester is set to enter the Phase 4 reopening stage under Governor Andrew Cuomo’s NY Forward reopening plan as we continue to recover from the COVID-19 epidemic.

Businesses that will be eligible to begin reopening in Phase 4 are:

  • Higher Education
  • Low-Risk Outdoor Arts & Entertainment
  • Low-Risk Indoor Arts & Entertainment
  • Media Production
  • Professional Sports Competitions with No Fans
  • Food services, include restaurants food trucks and other food concessions, many of which had been eligible for takeout and outdoor dining services previously.

The state has a number of mandatory guidelines and best practices outlined for each of these industries that are able now to reopen. As with prior reopening stages, each reopening business must develop a written Safety Plan outlining how its workplace will prevent the spread of COVID-19. 

Industry specific guidelines and Safety Plan templates can be found at: https://forward.ny.gov/phase-four-industries

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NYC CAN ENTER PHASE 3 WITH NO INDOOR DINING

Governor Andrew M. Cuomo today announced that New York City will enter Phase Three of reopening tomorrow, but that indoor dining will not reopen there. The governor also updated New Yorkers on the state’s progress during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The number of new cases, percentage of tests that were positive and many other helpful data points are always available at forward.ny.gov.

“New York City is a crowded, dense urban area and — until recently — was the global epicenter of the COVID-19 crisis,” Governor Cuomo said.  “Out of an abundance of caution and after seeing other states’ experiences with indoor dining, we will wait to reopen it as the city moves to Phase Three tomorrow.   As we end this holiday weekend, I urge everyone to be New York Tough: wear a mask, socially distance, use hand sanitizer and continue the smart practices that have made our state a national leader in combatting this virus.  I also remind local governments of their duty to enforce the standards that have made NY’s reopening safe and successful.”

Today’s data is summarized briefly below:

  • Patient Hospitalization – 832 (-12)
  • Patients Newly Admitted – 54 (-9)
  • Hospital Counties – 28
  • Number ICU – 178 (-12)
  • Number ICU with Intubation – 116 (-3)
  • Total Discharges – 70,968 (+91)
  • Deaths – 8
  • Total Deaths – 24,904

Of the 63,415 tests conducted in New York State yesterday, 533, or 0.84 percent, were positive. Each region’s percentage of positive tests over the last three days is as follows:

REGIONTHURSDAYFRIDAYSATURDAY
Capital Region1.10%0.90%0.60%
Central New York0.90%1.40%1.50%
Finger Lakes1.80%0.70%0.90%
Long Island0.90%1.00%0.80%
Mid-Hudson1.40%1.10%0.80%
Mohawk Valley2.90%1.20%1.10%
New York City1.50%1.40%0.90%
North Country1.20%0.30%0.60%
Southern Tier0.50%0.90%0.30%
Western New York1.70%1.40%0.70%

The Governor also confirmed 533 additional cases of novel coronavirus, bringing the statewide total to 397,131 confirmed cases in New York State. Of the 397,131 total individuals who tested positive for the virus, the geographic breakdown is as follows:

CountyTotal PositiveNew Positive
Albany2,1527
Allegany630
Broome7531
Cattaraugus1270
Cayuga1200
Chautauqua1321
Chemung1460
Chenango1501
Clinton1032
Columbia4751
Cortland511
Delaware910
Dutchess4,2435
Erie7,47513
Essex481
Franklin330
Fulton2610
Genesee2390
Greene2630
Hamilton60
Herkimer1731
Jefferson941
Lewis310
Livingston1321
Madison3630
Monroe395331
Montgomery1190
Nassau42,03143
Niagara1,2847
NYC216,969239
Oneida1,74217
Onondaga2,94921
Ontario2802
Orange10,7759
Orleans2820
Oswego2060
Otsego860
Putnam1,3361
Rensselaer5652
Rockland13,64819
Saratoga5664
Schenectady8343
Schoharie591
Schuyler130
Seneca711
St. Lawrence2241
Steuben2701
Suffolk41,64257
Sullivan1,4560
Tioga1461
Tompkins1791
Ulster1,8349
Warren2691
Washington2460
Wayne1852
Westchester35,04323
Wyoming971
Yates480
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It’s Sunny. It’s 84 WABC DEEEEEGREES! THE INTREPID AMERICAN GRILLMAN RETURNS ON A PERFECT 4TH!

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STOVETOP STARTER MAKES FIRST APPEARANCE OF 2018. Using the New York Times started Saturday twilight Grill in record time. Superior burning newsprint!

WPCNR GRILLMAN GAZETTE. By The Grillin Gourmet. ReInternetted from The CitizeNetReporter Archives of the Ancient Past. April , 2018:

No matter whether you’re a New York Liberal, a Michigan Wolverine, A Trump supporter, or California free spirit, there’s still one phenomenon the country still believes in the American grill.

Thanks to the chimney charcoal starter and its glowing orange coals, the backyard American barbeque DNA macho in the amateur chef was inordinately delayed by the coldest WETTEST spring in memory.

But today its 84 degrees in White Plains New York USA, Dan Ingram is telling you to “Roll Your Bod,” and the grill is  READY!

Steak was raised outside, it was born to be cooked outside, and the barbequed steak puts the Cartier- priced steakhouse in its place!

In this griller’s opinion, outdoor grilling proves once again to be the equal and superior to the overpriced artificial-tasting steak. Sleek decor and atmosphere cannot duplicate backyard origins. The economy may be slogging, your home equity quiting, but  take heart even the hobo can grill! It’s part of American DNA. It’s Democracy!

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To do real steak right , you have to do it outside on charcoal.

The instinct of generations of the American backyard barbeque tradition passed up from  the cave, enjoyed at Valley Forge. Lewis and Clark bit into venison discovering the Northwest.

Cowboys sunk teeth into rare beef around chuck wagons on the prairie and up from the Southland , barbeque inbred and passed on from American father to American son – cutting across nationality and station – gives you real steak – not $100 technology  enhanced cuts. Flaming charcoal makes steak a living thing in your mouth!

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I thought America can pull itself out of this. As long as the American grilling tradition is handed down, the pioneer “can-do” spirit lives! Look at those glowing babies romancing, enhancing that steak. It makes your mouth water!

Why go out for dinner when you can tap your inner griller and say I can cook steak better?  The difference is the air, the smoke, the way marinade just drips down into the coals and gets into the meat. It’s chemistry,  Americans!

What is it about the American Grillman that’s so special that his or hers backyard cuts beat the insider  professionals’ inflation-friendly ostentatious steaks?

It’s the unique chemistry of being American and believing in the charcoal flames.

On Memorial Day weekend, it’s a must. On Independence Day Weekend, it’s not July 4 unless you’re grillin’. On Labor Day, if you’re not workin’, you’re grillin’.

There’s just something about the searing intensity of glowing charcoal combining mystically with the testosterone and instinctual synergy between red meat and the dedicated outdoor griller –  it beats in taste, juiciness and texture the contrived technology of the most expensive restaurant equipment.

No matter how tasty the megabuck meat is in the swank sticker shock steak palaces of the swells, there’s always that articificial packaged taste that betrays the indoor steak. The butteryness. The soft crust of the black topped surface of the indoor steak just does not have the nubile grizzled roughhewn flamed  reluctant yield of the outdoor one-on-one grilled steak that fights your bicuspids with spirit.

The Chimney Starter the Secret.

Pour in a helping of those ultimate black beauties, Kingsford charcoal briquettes into the chimney top.

Fifteen minutes before the wife has the sides ready, take a wooden match to the aperatures in the base of the starter and light up the edges of the newsprint. Within 10-15 minutes you’ve got coals a firey orange red. You’re ready to outcook the pros.

After the Griller’s wife has marinated the meat –  the bone trimmed Porterhouse is sizzzzzzzlllllllllling in the caressing deep searing heat of glowing orange briquettes – 4  minutes a side in 400 degree heat and deft turning and surgical “rareness checks” – the seasoned grillistabalero  simply has a feel for the meat – passed genetically down from generations of American grillers.

The combination of cauldron, flavored steel grill rods and perfect flames creates the grillmark “brand” lets you know just by looking at the cut, you’re going to get the natural taste of the backyard steak –  No one can do a great cut like you can!

As any redblooded American Grillman will tell you when doing a steak – you can’t deliver a steak by manual or instructions.

You have to feel the meat. Feel it cook. You just know its time. Hearty smoke promising juicy meat that melts in your mouth creates an experience only the grillman or GrillGal knows.

Every cut is not the same.

Each deserves a surgeon’s attention to cooking timing and detail. And surgical checks are necessary.

The American Grillman becomes one with the meat. With eye and knowledge of the hue of red – you just  know  by instinct when she’s done. Cooking is slowed down by moving the meats to the side off the heat to keep the American beauties warm

With the wife’s deft presentation, sweet potato fries, corn pudding, fresh beans and mushrooms the Grillman’s natural art creates the taste of the Fourth of July

Get those grills handy and ready to fire up to get that taste of American Independence once again.

When you’re over the grill, you’re King of the Hill.

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TODAY THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE WAS SIGNED IN PHILADELPHIA

In Congress, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.


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Enlarge

Declaration of Independence

The condition of the parchment Declaration of Independence is a sign of the place it has held in the hearts of many Americans. Years of public display have faded and worn this treasured document. Today it is maintained under the most exacting archival conditions possible.

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